Every shoe that I make is lasted by hand. The process of lasting is when a upper is stretched over a shoe form (last) and attached to the insole and last by nails or any sort of bracing. The following example is for a pair for cemented constructed test fitters that the customer wears for a couple weeks before the lasts may or may not be adjusted for the final shoe. I don’t usually focus too hard on closing and clicking the uppers when doing a test fit nor do I use a high quality leather so the uppers aren’t perfect…
the first pull is at the toe
then checking to see the upper is not crooked
pull at the toe and ball line
then pull the heel, pleat it, and pull the shank. Extra allowance for a very narrow/beveled waist in the final shoe.
heel lasted flat without wrinkles
continue up to the rear of the toe. the first nails at the toe and ball line are removed and re-pulled. The next step is lasting the lining at the toe and attaching a leather stiffener between the upper and lining. This method is called 2 phase lasting…
With the lining lasted and the toe stiffener inserted the upper is lasted at the toe.
Pleat and lasting is finished! The test fitter was a good fit, here is a picture of the final shoes I just lasted today… the next step is to handsew the welt.